Pendulum 01 Overlapping action and FK

Pendulum 01   Overlapping action and FK


okay today we are going to talk a little bit about FK and overlapping action and follow
through We are also going to just instinctively because it is connectedly tied to a hierarchy, and
going to be talking about arcs a little bit. So first lets talk about What FK is and what a hierarchy is. so if we look at our rig we are going to be working with on the upcoming project, you’ll see it renders
relatively well its just sort of a fully animated rig, and you can animate directly onto the mesh, see you can move this object around however you like. But then the limbs below it kind of have other kind of constrain to one angle of rotation, and so that will allow us to animate this object kind of flying around and doing its own thing, and the arm as a reaction to the platform, especially considering there’s a weight on the bottom of it. so this sort of hierarchy here is called a forward kinematic hierarchy or not hierarchy, it’s called a forward kinematic chain of joints. So if we look at the topmost arm, which is arm one, well actually lets just look at the entire hierarchy of the object here, we have this, A group, which is actually just an
invisible group, that we can use to place the object if we wanted to. lets not worry about that, the platform
is it on mesh and if I rotate that all the arms underneath it follow
with it and that is because just like any folder structure inside an
operating system you’ll see that each of the arms are kinda
below that. So if I rotate this next arm down the arms below it go with it. However if I rotate
this one arm 2, you’ll see that arm 1 doesn’t go
with it and so this is just how you expect a hierarchy to work. This is how if you are playing with tinker toys or
something like that this is how hierarchy works and this is
actually have a hierarchy of your own arm works and because this motion of this final piece in the hierarchy is controlled by rotation from all of the objects above it and the
hierarchy this is called forward kinematics
or FK for short So there’s another type of rotation and we
won’t really talk about that very much, at least not in this exercise but it’s called IK and that stands for
inverse kinematics and inverse kinematics is when you can grab
the end connector or the end of the hierarchy and by moving it
the entire arm moves with it. It’s actually really easy and
quick to pose but has a lot of limitations on how your animation works. So lets go ahead and grab everything here I’m just going to 0 this out: so we can start
working with this. Let’s talk about how animation works with forward
kinematics. Cuz obviously I can sit through here and I can manually go through here, and pose this arm. Something like that, and if I am pretty happy with that, I can select the arm, hit “s” on the keyboard of course I’m on frame 61, I meant to do it on frame 1. hit “s” and we just sort of nailed down a keyframe there in that position I will go ahead and go to frame 15, and I can grab all of them together and rotate them, and you will see that rotation with all of them. So if I just have all of them selected at the same time, I can do that by just marquee selecting everything. I can rotate everything and get a completely different pose with this. Its very quick to pose in the way I want that arm to move, right? Second I can quickly go through here and just do this with everything. You want to make sure your selecting all the pieces. So, I can pose it like this, interesting how the motions are getting a little bigger. I’m actually going to pull back on that just a little bit. Keyframe on that, and then frame 45, may be dying down just a little bit. so this is not intended to really show a realistic motion just yet. I’m just setting some keyframes so we can see how this works. and this seems pretty self-evident. Like how the motion would work. So if we look at the keyframes now, and we just play that, it does kinda feel like an arm swinging back and forth, unfortunately it feels like a very robotic arm. It feels very stiff and rigid it’s not very organic, or even really very visually pleasing to look at, Very boring, very drab, so part of the reason for this is because everything is sort of starting and stopping at the same time we set a keyframe on frame 1 and on 15, on frame 30, 45 and 60. We see that all the motion sort of happens, it all starts and stops in directions on the same exact keyframes together and it’s really nice as a way to
organize your animations. Its actually how pose to pose animation works. But we need to go back and loosen it up a little bit. We need to talk about how to make this feel less rigid and robotic. Ok, so, one of the easiest ways and one of the nicest elements of this FK chain, is that we can do this sum, just by offsetting our keyframes. so if I grab these lower 3 , and I’m gonna touch the upper part of the arm and I highlight all my keyframes, and shift them by 1 frame and I do this all the way down the
hierarchy, shift the next one by one frame, this last one by one frame. You’ll see now that if I grab the entire
chain, what happens is the keys are offset from each other in the hierarchy. and if we watch this, it feels a little
looser now, it feels like its sort of overshooting a little bit, still feels a little stiff and rigid though, doesn’t feel completely organic, so I can do another frame, I can select each of these, drag in another frame again how I’m doing this is, holding down “shift” and then “middle mouse button click”, dragging on my timeline to select all that. So now, if you look at all the keys, on my keys you’ll see that they’re each
two frames apaert and offset from each other when we watch that its feeling much more loose and fluid, right, so this is called lead and follow, its is a way of saying that certain body parts or objects in a hierarchy lead the motion and other parts follow. and so this doesn’t have to be the
way we do this… I’m going to undo as far as it will let me, get this back to where I was, where everything was looking robotic, right? We can do the opposite, we can actually have, instead of the upper part leading, we can have this lower part leading and if we did that, I’m sorry I am doing this incorrectly… grab the… top three but leave this one first, have these back and do the opposite here Now the higher up the hierarchy the later your keyframe happens. ok, if we do that, its going to kind of do a little bit of a different motion. at this point now it feels like the ball is pulling it a little bit, if you wanna see that even
more exaggerated, we can continue to offset a little bit. offset even more, and then, you’ll really see that it feels like the ball is pulling it around, probably not what we would really want, it almost feels like its playing backwards because we would be so used to seeing this thing dangle but imagine instead the
something’s got a hold of this like somethings pulling the ball around at the bottom and causing that motion to happen this is called lead and follow. At this point the rest of the hierarchy is following the ball, the ball is which is leading, and so I that’s just how motion works usually there’s a source of the force, there’s usually a source for forces that causes motion to happen in any object if you
are walking or stepping around then
you’re pushing on the ground with some muscles in your legs and so usually the source of that is your hips,
your hips are the first things that move, and so that leads your spine, your spine
will move around. As a following gesture with the ..with the hips motion. but that doesn’t mean that this has to be the only way we have to do this, its kind of a hard to plan option. We can also keyframe some of this. so let’s say that for this move here I know how I want this motion to work I
know that this lower part is moving first, and I know that I want these parts below
it to kinda drag behind it. So I’m actually just going in here
between this motion and I’m just setting another key frame that manually makes that happen the way I
want it to. so we’ll see that, so now it feels like its dragging a little bit again, and then we get here to the top and we know its going to change directions and come back but not all at the same time, this
piece is hitting up here on frame 15 and then
changing directions, but that part finished rotating first, so all these other pieces below may be haven’t received that information yet, okay so I can have those drag behind a little more and in fact I can even go up here right before it, before it hits here, and I can build in little bits of motion or maybe something like this, so maybe right here, i can have this overshoot, like this and so now without really offsetting any keyframes, Im just kind of manually keying in this overshoot, I can really make this animation look the way I want to. I’m really dragging this arm behind, so if we watch this, so let’s say that we want this to feel it really hits this pose, and kind of overshoots again and then again, I can grab these curves and really twist them past this, and make it look like what happened in the uppermost arm changes directions, but the rest of it hasn’t caught up with it yet, so we get this overshooting motion as this piece
changes directions and starts returning back in this directing, these other pieces are continuing forward and so you can just kinda build
some of this in your motion and into your pose, now this doesn’t mean that this is all the work either, you may still want to go back after this and do a little bit of cleanup. So, I’m just setting a lot of frames to get it to look exactly the way I want it to. but, yeah, you can just offset stuff a little bit in your graph editor and in your timeline to still get a little bit more of a overshoot and you’re definitely gonna wanna still
go in and clean up her curves. So now if we look at this, the posing method, I had a lot more control on exactly how
this looks but, what I want to do now, is go in and make sure my curves are doing what I want them to do so say that theres very few curves in this, and look at this in and this is my
rotation of my uppermost arm, this top piece right here, so it starts rotating kind of slowly, and then speeds up a little bit settles out and then comes back here, then you’ll notice it kind of sticks for a second there, it flattens out so
we don’t want that, so we are going to have it to continue to overshoot a little bit again, maybe to that, thats not bad, so we can still just kind of make little changes to this to make it do exactly what we want it to do, and if there’s something in here we want
to do that it’s not doing we can change it and shift it, lets look at this now and see what it’s doing So we get this rotation, and then it kinda starts to change directions here too, but just a little more slowly, maybe what I want is for it to overshoot just a little bit more and then start coming back, so I can additional keys in here by going to keys and add key tool, i just have to select the curve i want to add the key to, and then I middle mouse click to
insert a new keyframe so I can continue to have it go a little past that, so if we watch this now, this is nice, we are getting a lot more of this “whip” action in it, and here it sort of stops its rotation here and changes directions more quickly, maybe ill insert one more keyframe to keep it going a little more further past that, right, and so i can continue to go down the chain, and you’ll see that I’m just kinda
looking for areas that maybe it doesn’t look like it’s making sense like, this on gets there kind of early, and flattens out a little bit, so lets see how that looks if i do that, okay so maybe what I want is for this to happen to continue to stay up there a little longer, ok, you kind of see that what Im doing is on offsetting individual keyframes something like that and maybe at this point here, maybe it
just didn’t go up high enough maybe, I want something like so it really feels like its dragging back down, and so at this point I may want to start looking at how this starts affecting my tangents, does this drag more here, and if so, when i get to this point, when i change direction, right here, it starts returning very quickly, and maybe thats not accurate, maybe i still want to go in here and add another curve, and let it just drag just another frame or two, and then it kind of catches up here pretty quickly,doesn’t it, so maybe we will keep dragging it back up a little more here, so I’m putting a lot more drag into this bottom piece, So its getting mixed with these floppy motions at the end, and then I could go in here and i can even consider offsetting this bottom one if I want make that whole thing happened a little later, lets see how that looks, that may break it, I think it actually makes it work little
too light. so, lets undo that, ok, and so the fact that it overshoots that far, if thats part of whats making it look too light, then I can pull back on this a little bit, so we overshoot, and really want it to look like the balls sort of dragging behind, okay and kind of getting there a little latter. so here it’s kind of flipping forward a little early. so, I’m going to continue to drag that back like this now when we hit here, we can overshoot a little bit, add key, see how that looks, may have to drag this one, ohh come on, (my move shortcut key wasn’t working because caps lock was turned on) so you see what I’m doing is I’m just making this
happen exactly the way I want and so that’s kind of the, if you get nothing else from any of my classes, your the animator, your in control. Now this may not be what i was going for, maybe i want this to look heavy and this here feels a little more floppy, I just kinda want to show you the the ability you have of overlap you can get out of this, ill probably actually just do a complete walk through, of this animation and post that up there, and so that will be something for you to to watch and get an idea about how to move forward on this next project, let me know if you have any questions
talk to you soon. bye.

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