Juanelo’s Artifice: 3D animation video.


FUNDACIÓN JUANELO TURRIANO presents Juanelo Turriano’s artifice of Toledo Juanelo Turriano was born in Cremona, Italy,
around 1500. He was Charles V’s master clockmaker and Philip II’s consultant engineer. He began
work on the artifice of Toledo in 1565 and finished it in 1569. He later built a second
device between 1575 and 1581. These two machines raised water from the Tagus to the city’s Alcázar or castle located 90 metres above the river. Very little is known about the actual characteristics
of the device. The solution presented here is based on Ladislao Reti’s hypothesis, adjusted as per subsequent findings and studies. Plan view – Total distance 300 metres
Side elevation view – Total elevation 90 metres A dam and other structures, some of which
were very likely already in place, were used to collect the river water. 24 dipper towers First stage: chain of scoops. Elevation, 14 metres
The first stage consisted of a waterwheel
that drove a chain of scoops, raising the water 14 metres over head to the first deposit. This was a tried and true system, long in
use in many places The first mechanical problem to be solved
was to convert the bull wheel’s continuous rotary motion into the reciprocating motion
needed in the draw and push rods. Second stage: reciprocating dippers
The second stage, a series of towers fitted with reciprocating dippers, was Juanelo’s own invention. In it, the water was gradually
raised by flowing from one dipper to the next. Draw and push rods
The draw and push rods followed an staggered course, adapted to the terrain. A mechanism at the base of each tower converted their motion into a reciprocating vertical force that moved the dippers up and down. Timing mechanism
Intermittent pauses allowed time for the water
to flow from dipper to dipper. Timing mechanism
The timing mechanism also transmitted the
general reciprocating motion to the next set of draw and push rods, whose position was
adjusted to changes in the slope as necessary. To accommodate the tolerance deliberately
built into in the transmission mechanism, a counterweight-governed cog brought the dippers to a complete stop when not driven by the draw and push rods. Another element essential to efficient dipper
operation was the key positioned at the top of the towers, which served the same purpose
as a crown in masonry arches. The mechanism at the base of the towers did not allow for horizontal changes in direction. This problem was solved with turnstiles fitted
with two ropes that transmitted the motion while maintaining its amplitude. According to the tests run on the artifice
in 1569, it could raise 18 000 litres of water a day, over 50 per cent more than stipulated
in the agreement concluded by Philip II’s representative, the city of Toledo and Juanelo
Turriano. Juanelo died in 1585. The artifices began
to fail in 1604 and were permanently closed down in 1617. The last vestiges of the civil works were
dynamited in 1868. And who is the one who dares
to raise to the King’s house stairs? Wings asked the Tagus, Icarus come
Juanelo, Cremonese Dedalus, from But then of the Sun taking fright
Glides far below, wings out of sight. Luis de Góngora
in Las firmezas de Isabela Technical advisors Headline animation Produced by (in alphabetical order)

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